In all, the amount of irrigated land multiplied by a factor of eight. Act more honestly. [85] During the British Raj, Christian missionaries developed writing systems for Indian languages that previously did not have one. [190] Although the plan envisioned limited self-government at first only in the provinces—with India emphatically within the British Empire—it represented the first British proposal for any form of representative government in a non-white colony. Howarth. [32] Even so, the "...  tiny advances in the practice of representative government were intended to provide safety valves for the expression of public opinion, which had been so badly misjudged before the rebellion". The Hindu and Muslim belong to two different religions, philosophies, social customs and literature [sic]. [84] Within educational institutions established during the British Raj, Christian texts, especially the Bible, were a part of the curricula. Full title was "Viceroy and Governor-General of India" ... often using total numbers of females in a household rather than individual names. [152] Waldemar Haffkine, who mainly worked in India, became the first microbiologist to develop and deploy vaccines against cholera and bubonic plague. This innovation in Indian governance was promulgated in the Indian Councils Act 1861. In 1780, the conservative British politician Edmund Burke raised the issue of India's position: he vehemently attacked the East India Company, claiming that Warren Hastings and other top officials had ruined the Indian economy and society. 2007. ☆꧂, . He asked the MES leaders to first identify the real issue as to whether marathis in belgaum are being targeted for espousing the cause of Marathi language or because they were supporting the merger of Belgaum with Maharashtra. The Secretary of State for India represented the Government of India in the UK. [14][15], On 2 October 2009, MNS workers disrupted the screening of the film Wake Up Sid on its release in a few Pune and Mumbai theatres, after Raj objected to references in the movie to "Bombay" rather than "Mumbai". Lord Minto, the Conservative viceroy met with the Muslim delegation in June 1906. This was done so that Mountbatten could attend both ceremonies. "Imperialism and Gender." Moore, Robin J. [195] Although departments like defence, foreign affairs, criminal law, communications, and income-tax were retained by the Viceroy and the central government in New Delhi, other departments like public health, education, land-revenue, local self-government were transferred to the provinces. [128], — Jawaharlal Nehru, on the economic effects of the British rule, in his book The Discovery of India[130], Historians continue to debate whether the long-term impact of British rule was to accelerate the economic development of India, or to distort and retard it. [1], In general, the term "British India" had been used (and is still used) to refer also to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. An all-India census was conducted between 1868 and 1871, often using total numbers of females in a household rather than individual names. After more discussion, in August 1917, the new Liberal Secretary of State for India, Edwin Montagu, announced the British aim of "increasing association of Indians in every branch of the administration, and the gradual development of self-governing institutions, with a view to the progressive realisation of responsible government in India as an integral part of the British Empire". [184], The year 1915 also saw the return of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi to India. [100], British India built a modern railway system in the late 19th century, which was the fourth largest in the world. The reigning British monarchs during the period of the British Raj, 1858–1947, in silver one-rupee coins. [154], In 1881 there were around 120,000 leprosy patients. The following day Hindu-Muslim riots broke out in Calcutta and quickly spread throughout British India. You probably have google this question: My baby name is Raj and how can I combine the name Raj with other names and create unique & new name? The British authorities were, however, able to crush violent rebels swiftly, in part because the mainstream of educated Indian politicians opposed violent revolution. Indeed some kind of chart might be drawn up to indicate the close connection between length of British rule and progressive growth of poverty. Other estimates of the number of deaths are as high as 1,500,000. It used American technology, not British,[98] and became the leading iron and steel producer in India, with 120,000 employees in 1945. Marshall notes the British went into partnership with Indian bankers and raised revenue through local tax administrators and kept the old Mughal rates of taxation. [209] The predominantly Hindu and Sikh areas were assigned to the new nation of India and predominantly Muslim areas to the new nation of Pakistan; the plan included a partition of the Muslim-majority provinces of Punjab and Bengal. [citation needed] His parents were Shrikant Thackeray (younger brother of Bal Thackeray) and Kunda Thackeray (younger sister of Bal Thackeray's wife Meena Thackeray). [155] Under the direction of Mountstuart Elphinstone a program was launched to propagate smallpox vaccination. [31] All laws enacted by Legislative Councils in India, whether by the Imperial Legislative Council in Calcutta or by the provincial ones in Madras and Bombay, required the final assent of the Secretary of State in London; this prompted Sir Charles Wood, the second Secretary of State, to describe the Government of India as "a despotism controlled from home". Bal Gangadhar Tilak said that the Swadeshi and Boycott movements are two sides of the same coin. [11] Following Raj's threat, Maharashtra Police acted against Raj, issuing a gag order preventing him from speaking to the media. Herbertson, A.J. [96], In the 1890s, he launched plans to move into heavy industry using Indian funding. [97] The Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO), now headed by his son Dorabji Tata (1859–1932), opened its plant at Jamshedpur in Bihar in 1908. [213], While the regular Indian army in 1939 included about 220,000 native troops, it expanded tenfold during the war,[214] and small naval and air force units were created. [13] Within 12 hours of Raj Thackeray's declaration, Jet chairman Naresh Goyal reversed the layoffs and reinstated the sacked employees. "[181], The 1916 Lucknow Session of the Congress was also the venue of an unanticipated mutual effort by the Congress and the Muslim League, the occasion for which was provided by the wartime partnership between Germany and Turkey. Foreground, fourth from left, is B. R. Ambedkar representing the "Depressed Classes", A second-day cancellation of the series "Inauguration of New Delhi", 27 February 1931, commemorating the new city designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker, A first-day cover issued on 1 April 1937 commemorating the separation of Burma from the British Indian Empire. In July 2008, Raj issued a public warning that shops in Mumbai needed to have Marathi signboards in addition to the existing English signboards. Within the princely states external affairs, defence and most communications were under British control. [112][113], Headrick shows that until the 1930s, both the Raj lines and the private companies hired only European supervisors, civil engineers, and even operating personnel, such as locomotive engineers. They were run by British administrators, engineers and craftsmen.

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